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General Information
   
Photovoltaic systems - Introduction
Advantages
The global market
Photovoltaics in Greece

Feed-In-Tariffs

   
The "pieces of the puzzle" of a P/V investment
   

The choice of land - Geographical solar irradiation

Construction and Maintenance

Project Financing

Insurance

   
 
Downloads
   
  Laws
 
>> Law 4254/2014
 

Repeal of suspension regarding the signing of Grid Connection Agreements (with PPC) and Power Purchase Agreements (with LAGIE) for photovoltaic projects as well as application of new Feed-In-Tariffs for PV parks and residential PV systems (ΦΕΚ 85Α/7/4/2014), also known as "New Deal".

   
>> Law 4223/2013
  Suspension regarding the signing of Grid Connection Agreements (with PPC) and Power Purchase Agreements (with LAGIE) for photovoltaic projects in Greece until 31.12.2014 and other regulations (ΦΕΚ 287Α/31/12/2013)
   
>> Law 4203/2013
  Regulations regarding Renewable Energy issues (ΦΕΚ 235Α/1/11/2013)
   
>> Law 4152/2013
  Regulations regarding Renewable Energy issues - modification of the extraordinary contribution of the Law 4093 - Bank guarantees for photovoltaic stations (ΦΕΚ 107Α/9/5/2013)
   
>> Law 4093/2012
  Extraordinary contribution for photovoltaic stations (ΦΕΚ 222Α/12/11/2012)
   
>> Law 4062/2012
  "Helios Project" - Promotion of the use of Renewable Energy (incorporation of EU Regulation 2009/28/EK), (ΦΕΚ 70Α/30-3-2012)
   
>> Law 4001/2011
 

For the operation of energy markets in electricity and gas research, production and networks transporting carbohydrates as well as other regulations.

   
>> Integration of Laws regarding Renewable Energy Sources
 

Integration of clauses of Law 3468/2006 as they were amended by the Laws 3734/2009, 3851/2010, 3889/2010 and other clauses.

   
>> Law 3851/2010
 

Accelerating the development of Renewable Energy Sources for the confrontation of climate changes and other provisions regarding competency of Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change, Gov. 85Α/4-6-2010

   
>> Law 3734/2009
 

Promotion of coproduction of two or more renewable sources of energy, regulation regarding the hydroelectric project in Mesochora and other provisions, Gov. 8Α/28-1-2009.

   
>> Law 3468/2006
 

Production of electricity from Renewable Energy Sources and Coproduction of High Performance Electricity and Heat and other provisions, Gov. 129Α/29-6-2006.

   
  Ministerial Decrees
 
  KYA 23615/651/Ε.103
 

Measures, terms and programme for the alternative management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (ΑΗΗΕ)”, ΦΕΚ 1184Β / 9-5-2014.

   
  ΥΑΠΕ/Φ1/1288/9011
 

Prices of electricity produced by photovoltaic stations, (ΦΕΚ 1103B'/02-05-2013)

   
  ΥΑΠΕ/Φ1/1289/9012
 

Modification of the Special Program for the Development of Photovoltaic Systems in premises and especially on terraces and rooftops (ΦΕΚ 1103B'/02-05-2013)

   
  ΥΑ 3791/2013
 

Standard Environmental Commitments (SEC) for renewable energy projects (ΦΕΚ 104Β/24-1-2013)

   
>> Υ.Α.Π.Ε. /Φ1/2300/οικ.16932 (ΦΕΚ Β΄ 2317)
 

Suspension of the licensing process and the issue of new Grid Connection Terms for Photovoltaic systems, due to achievement of targets regarding participation of the PV systems in the total energy mix.

   
>> Υ.Α.Π.Ε./Φ1/2301/οικ.16933 (ΦΕΚ Β΄ 2317)
 

Modification of the ministerial decision No. Υ.Α.Π.Ε./Φ1/2262/ 31.1.2012 (Β΄97 regarding pricing of the electricity produced by Photovoltaic Stations.

   
>> Υ.Α.Π.Ε./Φ1/2302/οικ16934 (ΦΕΚ Β΄ 2317)
 

Modification of the Special Program for the Development of Photovoltaic Systems in Buildings.

   
>> Υ.Α.Π.Ε. /Φ1/2303/οικ.16935 (ΦΕΚ Β΄ 2317)
 

Setting of remuneration percentage for ERT S.A. according to article 14 of Law1730/1987, that constitutes resource of the special account as per article 40 of Law 2773/1999.

   
>> Υ.Α.Π.Ε./Φ1/14810
 

Regulation of Production Licenses for energy produced by Photovoltaic systems.

   
>> Υ.Α.Π.Ε./Φ1/οικ.2266
 

Modification of the Special Program for the Development of Photovoltaic Systems and Pricing of energy produced by renewable energy stations.

   
>> YA 9154/2011
 

Amendments to special conditions regarding the installation of photovoltaic and solar systems in playgrounds, plots and buildings, Gov. 583Β/14-4-2011

   
>> ΥΑ 24839/2010
 

Bailment for signing contracts for the connection with distribution power systems using RES excepted from the requirement of production license, Gov. 1901Β/3-12-2010

   
>> Υ.Α.Π.Ε./Φ1/οικ.27904
 

Amendment of the Δ6/Φ1/οικ. 8684/24.4.2007 (Gov. Β΄ 694) decision of the Minister of Development, as it was amended by the Δ6/Φ1/οικ.15450/18.7.2007 (Gov. Β΄ 1276) decision of the Minister of Development, for the Approval of Phase A’ under article paragraph 1 of Low 3468/2006 Development Program of Photovoltaic Stations, Gov. 2143 Β 31.12.201

   
>> ΑΥ/Φ1/οικ.19384
 

Abolition of the decision of the Minister of Development No. Δ6/Φ1/οικ.7037/24.03.2008,  Gov. 1674 Β 21.10.2010

   
>> YA 19598/2010
 

Decree for the target ratio of installed power and its allocation in time among various technologies of Renewable Energy Sources, Gov. 1630Β/11-10-2010

   
>> KΥA 18513/2010
 

Completion of the Specific Program for the Development of Photovoltaic Systems in buildings, Gov. 1557Β’/22-9-2010

   
>> ΥΑ 40158/2010
 

Approval of specific conditions for installing photovoltaic systems and solar systems in terrains and buildings in areas outside town planning zone, Gov. 1556Β/22-9-2010

   
>> ΥΑ 36720/2010
 

Approval of specific conditions for installing photovoltaic systems and solar systems in buildings and plots in town planning zones and in built-up areas, Gov. 376/6-9-2010

   
>> ΚΥΑ 17149/2010
 

Form and content of contracts for selling electricity produced using renewable energy sources and through combined production of Low Performance Electricity and Heat in the System and the Interconnected Network and in the Network of Non-Interconnected Islands, according to the clauses of article 12 paragraph 3 of Low 3468/2006, as in force, except for solar-thermal and hybrid power plants, Gov. 1497Β/6-9-2010

   
>> Υ.Α. 20.07.2009
 

Terms of installation for Photovoltaic Systems up to 10KW in terraces and roofs of buildings.

Approval of specific conditions and building limitations for the installment of Photovoltaic Systems notwithstanding the clauses of the articles 1, 4 and 7 of the Presidential Decree on 24.5.1985 (Gov. 270/τ.Δ΄/31.5.1985), as well as specific distances from the borders of settlements notwithstanding the clauses of article 4 of the same Presidential Decree and the clauses of article 7 of the Presidential Decree on 24.4.1985 (Gov. 181/τ.Δ΄/1985)

   
>> ΚΥΑ 12323/2009
  Special Program for the Development of Photovoltaic Systems in premises and especially in terraces and on rooftops, Gov. 1079Β’/4-6-2009
   
>> ΚΥΑ 49828/2008
 

Approval of a specific framework for regional planning and sustainable development of renewable energy sources and for the strategic environmental impact assessment of this, Gov. 2464Β/3-12-2008

   
>> ΚΥΑ 104247/2006
 

Procedure of Preliminary Environmental Assessment and Evaluation (P.E.A.E.) and Approval of Environmental Terms (A.E.T.) for projects of Renewable Energy Sources (R.E.S.), according to article 4 of Low 1650/1986, as it is replaced by article 2 of Law 3010/2002 and the JMD 104248/2006, “Content, Documentation and other elements of Preliminary Reports regarding Environmental Impacts, of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), as well as of related environmental studies, for projects of Renewable Energy Sources (R.E.S.)”, Gov. 663Β/26-5-2006

   
  Circulars
 
>> ΠΟΛ1216 (24-09-2013)
  Tax depreciations for photovoltaic stations
   
>> Circular YΑΠΕ/Φ1/οικ.28135 (27-12-2010)
 

Clarifications on priority of handling of requests for granting connection offers from the relevant network operator

   
>> Circular ΥΑΠΕ/Φ1/οικ.26928 (16-12-2010)
 

Implementation of clauses of Law 3851/2010 concerning the handling of requests for installing plants producing electricity using R.E.S. on agricultural land of high productivity, including professional farmers

   
>> Circular 1078580/6637/491/B0014 (6-8-2009)
 

Implementation of clauses of Law 3851/2010 concerning the handling of requests for installing plants producing electricity using R.E.S. on agricultural land of high productivity, including professional farmers

   
 

Miscellaneous

 
>> RAE decision No. 699/2012
 

Characterization of Peloponnese as an area with saturated network for Renewable Energy Stations and setting of safe limits regarding absorption of the energy produced by such Stations.

   
>> RAE decision No. 698/2012
 

RAE decision regarding the numerical values of coefficients of special remuneration fee of article 143 paragraph 2, Law 4001/2011, for the period between August 2012 and June 2013.

   
>> RAE decision No. 1291/2011
 

RAE decision regarding the limits for development of PV stations in Evia.

   
>> National Action Plan for RES
   
>> RAE decision No. 1251/2010
 

Exploiting the power margins for photovoltaic plants in Non-Interconnected Islands and from plants included in the Specific Program of paragraph 3 of article 14 of Law 3468/2006, as in force.

   
 
 
>> Model application for Public Power Organization Connection for Photovoltaic stations of power lower than 10 kWp.
   
 
Links
  > Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change (YPEKA)
  > Regulatory Authority for Energy (RAE)
  > Greek Operator of Electricity Market (LAGIE)
  > Public Power Corporation (PPC)
  > European Joint Research Centre (JRC)
  > Center for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving (CRES)
  > Hellenic Association of Photovoltaic Companies (HELAPCO)
   


Introduction to Photovoltaic Systems

Photovoltaics (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Materials presently used for photovoltaics include monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide/sulfide. Due to the growing demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacturing of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced considerably in recent years.

Solar photovoltaics is growing rapidly, albeit from a small base, to a total global capacity of 40,000 MW at the end of 2010. More than 100 countries use solar PV. Installations may be ground-mounted (and sometimes integrated with farming and grazing) or built into the roof or walls of a building (building-integrated photovoltaics).

Driven by advances in technology and increases in manufacturing scale and sophistication, the cost of photovoltaics has declined steadily since the first solar cells were manufactured. Net metering and financial incentives, such as preferential feed-in tariffs for solar-generated electricity, have supported solar PV installations in many countries.

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Advantages

Solar energy is a completely renewable resource.

Solar energy creates absolutely no pollution.

PV installations can operate for many years with little maintenance or intervention after their initial set-up.

The construction cost of solar photovoltaic systems has dropped by more than 60 percent in the past five years.
As a result, generating electricity from solar power is now cheaper than using diesel. As time progresses, renewable energy technologies generally get cheaper, while fossil fuels generally get more expensive.

Grid-connected solar electricity can be used locally thus reducing transmission/distribution losses as well as grid loading.

The energy production and, therefore, the income of a solar investment is more predictable in comparison with other forms of renewable energy such as, for exmple, the wind power.

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The Global Market

According to the "Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics 2014-2018", issued by the European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), the PV market has grown over the past decade at a remarkable rate - even during dificult economic times - and is becoming a major source of power generation for the world. After record growth in 2011, the global PV market stabilised in 2012 and in 2013 it reached another record year with at least 38.4 GW of newly-added capacity around the globe and almost 11 GW in Europe.

World cumulative installed capacity

At the end of 2009, the world’s cumulative installed PV capacity was more than 23 GW. One year later it was 40.3 GW and at the end of 2011 it was 70.5 GW. In 2012, the 100 GW mark was reached and by 2013, almost 138.9 GW of PV had been installed globally — an amount capable of producing at least 160 terawatt hours (TWh) of electricity every year. This energy volume is sufficient to cover the annual power supply needs of over 45 million European households. This is also the equivalent of
the electricity produced by 32 large coal power plants. The global cumulative installed capacity could have even reached 140 GW in 2013 if the additional 1.1 GW in China were taken into account.

Europe remains the world’s leading region in terms of cumulative installed capacity, with 81.5 GW as of 2013. This represents about 59% of the world’s cumulative PV capacity, down from 70% in 2012 and about 75% of the world’s capacity in 2011. In Europe, changing political support has created a climate of uncertainty that will hamper the re-development of the PV market. But outside Europe, the potential for growth remains intact and the various projects appearing in dozens of countries could transform into real market take-off.Asia Pacific countries are growing fast, with 40.6 GW now installed. Next in the rankings are the America’s (13.7 GW).

Going forward, the key issues that will play a role in determining how market evolution takes place include:

• Policy: The PV market remains in most countries a policy-driven market, as shown by the significant market decrease in countries where harmful and retrospective political measures have been taken. However, with the right decisions creating smart and sustainable support schemes for PV, markets can continue to grow in a number of countries

• Competitiveness: In some countries in some segments, PV is already competitive with other power sources in terms of levelised cost of electricity. In other countries, it is rapidly moving towards cost-competitiveness. Grid and market integration challenges should be addressed without delay in order not to further hamper future PV development

• Industry consolidation: With a global PV modules overcapacity that is less acute than one or two years ago, prices have stabilised in 2013 and the return to profitability should allow companies to invest again. This could in return lead to prices of new technology declining in the coming years and new markets opening for PV

The enormous potential of solar PV and its benefits for society are more obvious than ever. PV is becoming a mainstream player within the power system. Under all scenarios, PV will continue to increase its share of the energy mix in Europe and around the world, increasingly delivering clean, safe, affordable and decentralised electricity to people.

You can download the EPIA report by clicking here.

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Photovoltaics in Greece

The first Greek legislation for PV was introduced in 2006 offering generous feed-in-tariffs (a premium for selling green electricity to the grid) and setting the details for authorization of PV systems. These authorization processes were however complicated and certain procedures were long-lasting or even unnecessary. As a result, and despite the good financial incentives, the Greek PV market developed very slowly until 2009. New renewable energy legislation (Law 3851/2010) was passed by the Greek Parliament in mid-2010 bringing important changes in the legal-administrative framework. Furthermore, there were some new Ministerial Decisions which lifted certain bureaucratic barriers both in residential and open-field installations.

In 2010, despite the deep financial crisis, the Greek PV market nearly quadrupled compared to the previous year. New installations reached 150 MWp in 2010 and in 2013 Greece exceeded the one GW mark with 1,04GW annual installations. PV is probably the only sector which showed strong development trends in Greece. This development has created thousands of new jobs. Some 4,250 full time jobs have been created in the last years in the manufacturing and installation of PV systems and hundreds of companies are offering their services in trading, procuring and installing photovoltaics.

At the end of 2013, the cumulative installed PV capacity in Greece reached 2.58 GW of which 2.2 GW refer to open-field and industrial roofs installations and 0.38 GW refer to residential photovoltaic systems.

At the beginning of 2014, almost 14.417 residential PV systems and 41.217 open-field and industrial roof installations operate in Greece and 6.67% of the total electricity consumption is powered by photovoltaics.

The above figures rank Greece at the 2nd position wordwide with reference to the contribution of photovoltaics in the total energy consumption.

For a detailed overview of the Greek market statistics (available only in Greek language) you can download the lelevant HELAPCO (Hellenic Association of Photovoltaic Companies) report by clicking here

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Feed-In-Tarrifs for PVs in Greece

Below are the Feed-In-Tariffs for photovoltaics in Greece (Euros/MWh) in accordance with the period of connection, as provided by the Law 4254/2014.

  Residential Mainland Grid Network Non-connected islands
  P
<10kW
P<100kW 100kW<P
<500kW
500kW<P
<1MW
1MW<P
<5MW
P>5MW P<100kW 100kW<P

Connection
Period

  WS NS WS NS WS NS WS NS WS NS WS NS WS NS
                               
Before 2009 -- -- 445 -- 390 -- 385 -- 385 -- 385 -- 480 -- 440
                               
Q1 2009 -- -- 440 -- 375 -- 365 -- 365 -- 365 -- 480 -- 380
Q2 2009 -- -- 435 -- 370 -- 345 -- 345 -- 325 -- 460 -- 370
Q3 2009 -- -- 430 -- 365 -- 325 -- 325 -- 315 -- 430 415 380
Q4 2009 -- -- 425 -- 350 -- 315 -- 300 400 300 -- 410 415 350
                               
Q1 2010 -- -- 400 -- 335 -- 315 -- 290 390 280 -- 385 415 330
Q2 2010 -- -- 380 -- 315 -- 315 400 285 390 270 500 370 410 310
Q3 2010 -- -- 365 -- 295 400 295 380 260 375 255 490 365 405 275
Q4 2010 -- -- 345 395 280 395 280 355 245 360 240 470 335 400 275
                               
Q1 2011 -- -- 335 390 270 375 260 340 235 335 225 455 330 360 245
Q2 2011 -- -- 320 375 260 365 250 330 225 320 220 440 315 360 245
Q3 2011 470 430 305 360 250 360 245 310 215 300 205 415 295 335 230
Q4 2011 470 405 285 330 230 325 225 290 200 280 190 390 280 305 210
                               
Q1 2012 415 375 265 305 215 295 205 260 180 260 180 365 265 280 195
Q2 2012 385 360 240 280 195 265 185 235 165 230 155 330 240 270 190
Q3 2012 340 360 225 265 185 250 175 215 150 210 145 305 220 260 180
Q4 2012 295 340 215 255 180 240 165 205 145 195 135 290 215 240 170
                               
Q1 2013 295 285 205 240 170 240 145 195 140 190 130 280 205 220 155
Q2 2013 270 270 195 185 160 185 145 185 140 180 130 270 195 185 150
Q3 2013 220 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Q4 2013 175 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
 

Where: "P" is the Power of the solar park, "WS" stands for "With Subsidies" (whether the owner has been granted investment subsidies and has decided to receive them) and "NS" stands for "No Subsidies" (in case the owner decides not to receive the subsidies in order to enjoy higher FiT).

Exceptions from above prices are provided for solar parks up to 100kW owned by professional farmers, solar parks with capacity below 20kW and other specific categories that are mentioned in the Law.

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The choice of land - Geographical solar irradiation

The "topography" of a solar park, is amongst the most important determinants of its energy performance and financial feasibility. In addition, the choice of land affects the duration of the licensing process, taking into consideration that a project which is located in an area with many applications for PV park licenses will require more time until the completion of its licensing process.

PV parks below 500kW are characterized as "non-disturbing" production processes and, therefore, they can be installed into planned areas, urban areas with population below 2000 residents. In addition, they can be installed into non-planned agricultural areas.

Before selecting a plot for the development of a solar park, we check the following parameters which we strongly recommend our clients to check as well:

1

The plot shall be shadowless during the day. It shall not be affected by surrounding mountains, buildings, high trees, or other obstacles which might create local shadowing.

2

The plot shall have proper road access (either via asphalted or via agricultural or public road). Moreover, the neighboring roads shall be mentioned in the relevant Land Purchase Agreement.

3

Preferably, the plot shall be located closed to an Electric Substation or, at least, an electricity grid column. This will eliminate the grid connection cost.

4

The long side of the plot shall be oriented to south. In addition, a plot sloping a little to the south will require less space for the installation of the same capacity, compared with an absolutely flat plot.

5

The plot shall not be located within an environmentally protected area such as NATURA or RAMSAR.

6

A plot with lower commercial value is always preferable than a plot located in a more expensive area. Even if the plot in the expensive area is owned, it is more feasible to lease another plot in order to reduce the investment amount.

7

Always select a plot which is located in an area with higher solar irradiation in order to increase energy performance.

You may consult the below map of the Joint Research Centre, in order to see the solar potential of Greece.

   

RENELUX Οδηγός φωτοβολταικών συστημάτων

You may also check whether your plot is located in an environmentally or archaeologically protected area using the following links.

National Parks
Natura 2000 ΤΚΣ
Natura 2000 ΖΕΠ
Natura 2000 ΤΚΣ + ΖΕΠ
Ramsar
Traditional build-up areas
Archaeological sites

 

Space requirements for installation of solar systems

Installed capacity
Type of site
Space requirement
(fixed mounting - optimal inclination)
10 kWp
Pitched roof
52 - 80 sqm.
10 kWp
Flat residential roof
109 - 170 sqm.
100 kWp
Flat industrial roof
1.100 - 1.700 sqm.
100 kWp
Open-field
2.000 - 5.000 sqm.
500 kWp
Open-field
Ca. 10.000 sqm.

 

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The choice of equipment

In a photovoltaic investment, the choice of equipment will accompany you for the next 20 - 25 years. Therefore, it is of great importance that you select certified and guaranteed equipment from trustworthy manufacturers. For more information, please consult the equipment section of our web site.

 

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Licensing procedures

In the tables below, you may see the categories of PV systems by size according to the Greek PV investments framework and the licensing process of each category.

 
Capacity
Residential PVs
<= 10 kW
Very small-sized professional PVs
11kW - 100kW
Small & Medium-sized professional PVs
101kW - 500kW
Medium-sized professional PVs
501kW - 1MW
Large-sized professional PVs
> 1 MW

 

Residential

Open-field
<100kW

Industrial
< 100kW
Open-field
100-500kW
Open-field
500-999kW
Open-field
>1MW
Grid connection terms (PPC) R R R R R R
Consultations: (Archaeological forestry, Agricultural)   R   R R R
Small Scale Works Permitt   R   R R R
Environmental Impact Assessment* (EIA)         R R
Exception from EIA   R   R    
RAE Production License           R
RAE Exception Decision            
Installation License           R
Operation License           R
Grid connection agreement (PPC) R R R R R R
Power Purchase Agreement (PPC or HTSO) R R R R R R

R = Required, Empty space = Non-required

* For projects that are located in environmentally protected areas such as NATURA or RAMSAR, the Environmental Impact Assessment and the special permit from the Ancient Buildings Authority are also required.

 

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Operation & Maintenance

Please consult the Operation and Maintenance section of our web site.

 

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Project Financing

Various Greek banks offer standardized financial products which, among other features, include:

- 75% leverage ratio (25% equity investment)
- Loan term up to 15 years
- Additional VAT financing (whether required)
- Pledging of the PPA with no additional guarantees from the investor
- Variable rates based on Euribor and a spread which is depending on the investor's credibility

Renelux provides its clients with technical and administrative assistance in order to obtain project financing from the local banks.

 

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Insurance

Leading insurance groups with whom Renelux has established cooperation, offer very competitive policies which cover loss of income from the cessation of the solar parks operation due to one or more of the following causes:

  • Natural disaster
  • Aircraft crash
  • Malicious acts
  • Earthquake
  • Fire
  • Terror acts
  • Construction failures  

For more information, kindly contact our sales department.

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